In a modern braking system, the brake master cylinder takes on the force of the pedal and the brake booster. The force on the wheel brake cylinder increases so much, that the brake discs can be effectively pressed by the brake shoes. The braking pressure is distributed by the ABS and the braking force compensator preventing the spinning.
The various filters in the car prevent the engine oil, hydraulic oil, fuel and air from contamination. Oil must set up pressure and therefore remain unpolluted. If the fuel is contaminated, the combustion will get worse. The air in the interior is kept clean from dust, pollen and moisture with the help of an air-filter.
The battery power is transmitted through the starter to the spark coil which generates the high voltage. This voltage is carried to the spark plugs directly or via ignition distributor and ignition cable. There it creates sparks to ignite the air and the fuel in the cylinder. Electrical resistors in the ignition system prevent from discharging.
The construction parts which combine the bodywork and the wheels are jointed together in the chassis. This includes the steering system with steering rod, steering wheel, steering gear and power steering.
The car suspension system prevents swings and propagation of vibrations. Without a spring, a spring strut and a shock absorber the chassis will begin to rear and overshoot. In the independent suspension, the latter is supported by wishbones, ball joints, stabilizer, and various axle guides.
The combustion engine generates the torque via the camshaft, and then it is transmitted to all the auxiliary units and the wheels by means of belt drive. The force is effectively brought to belt pulleys and all the closed shafts via v-ribbed belts and toothed belts. These wearing parts must be usually replaced after each 100.000 km.
The electrical system plays an important part in every car. It begins with the battery which powers the lighting and the spark plugs. The control unit network with sensors is also meaningless without the electrical system. The power supply is ensured by the generator and can then power other assembly units, e.g. the air-conditioning compressor or the wipers.
The wiper can be switched on via a rotary knob on the steering wheel. It moves the wiper arms in a synchronous cycle and the wiper rubbers clean the discs. The car windshieldcleaningis completed with thewasher nozzles and the wiper motor. Changing and abrasion caused by weather lead to regular wear of rubbers.
Both the axle drive and the clutch are inseparably connected with the instant transmission of suitable torque to the wheels. The transmission of the gearbox speed ratio to the drive shaft is performed via the clutch plate. At the same time, the direction of transmission is ensured by the axle steering.
The car body represents the entire structure of a car. The mostly self-supported bodywork is produced from stainless steel, aluminium or plastic. It makes up the most important car part together with the chassis and the drive. The car body can rock on the street curves and thus is supported with springs.
The petrol or diesel is transported for combustion from the fuel container by means of a fuel pump, which is stored and lubricated in the tank like the tanker. The connection is ensured with the hoses to which the fuel filter is also attached. Due to safety reasons, the tank is always located away from the engine and behind a fender.
Comfort and luxury are shown through the interior fittings. Even the simplest furnishing has upholstered seats, a carpet from the driver's to the luggage compartment and a fitting with steering wheel, gearshifts and control elements for lighting, heating and air conditioning. Only the choice of fabrics reflects the luxury.
The air-conditioning system receives electricity for the air-conditioning compressor; apart from that it works almost without additional energy, because it generates the cold for the interior. The coolant is taken through the expansion valve to the evaporator via the compressor where it cools the air with the heat exchanger.
The heat is generated under the bonnet and then it can be used by the air-conditioning system for heating and cooling. These sectors along with the water cooling are run by the heat exchanger and so they can operate almost without any power supply. The air in the engine compartment can cool the water cooler and provide heat to the interior.
The exhaust pipe, also known as the exhaust system, transports the exhaust gases from the valve to the manifold in order to combine and take them through the tailpipe. The gases then flow through the middle and the rear silencer where they lose heat, pressure and sound. The modern exhaust system has a catalytic converter for exhaust gas purification.
Due to the elastic properties, hoses are common in every car. They are reinforced with fabric lining of metal fibers and thus can be used for transportation of fuel, engine oil, cool water, hydraulic liquid etc. Thermal influences lead to wearing in form of porous areas and cause hose leakage.
Brake pads for BMW 3 Series
Brake rotors (brake discs) for VOLKSWAGEN GOLF
Oil filter for BMW 5 Series
Air filter for AUDI A4
Outside mirror (wing mirror) for FORD FOCUS
Cabin filter (pollen filter) for MERCEDES-BENZ C-Class
Windscreen wipers (wiper blades) for FORD FIESTA
Shock absorber for MERCEDES-BENZ E-Class
Fuel filter for BMW 1 Series